## INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

Automotive mechanical by Joseph heithes (For subject point
of view and object queation) I. C.Engine by v. Gnesan ( For problem point of
view) I.C.Engine by Mathur and sharma Thermodynamics :-It is the field of science which deals with
energy possessed by gases and vapors, It's conversion in terms of heat
and work and it's relationship between various properties of system. System:-Reference to any space,
A matter or a group of Metter within a definite Boundary whether real or
imaginary is defined as a system. Surrounding:-Any
matter that is outside the boundary and affect the behavior of system is
defined as surrounding. Shown the gas inside the piston cylinder arrangement is
a system both Boundary B1 and B2. Cylinder is system for the boundary B2
and surrounding for the boundary B1 P, V, T = Are the fundamental
properties of gas. Properties:-Property
of a system is that quantity which belongs to the system. And without
which the system cannot exist. Thus P, V, Railway are known as the fundamental
properties of system. Heat and work are not a property of system. Note- Heat is not a property of gas
because without heat gas is existing. If volume is constant then work is zero
so work is not property of gas.

TYPES of system. Close system, Flow system or open system, isolated
system Open system when
there is no mass transfer but only energy transfer taking place across the
boundary. Then system is known as a closed system. Gas inside a
piston-cylinder arrangement is a good example for closed system. Open flow system when there is
both mass and energy transfer taking place a cross the boundary the system is
then referred as a open or flow system. Ex. For a flow system is the flow of
fluid through a duct or pipe. Isolated
system An isolated system is a system that is completely isolated
or separated from the surrounding. In this case, there is neither mass nor
energy transfer taking place across the boundary. Ex. For the isolated system
is the gas inside thermals flask the energy associated with a closed system is
known as transit energy. The energy associated with flow system is called flow
energy flow energy is a energy that is integrated with a mass Another type of
energy that remains constant within the boundary even if mass transfer take
place such on energy is known as stored energy . Internal energy is good
example for stored energy.

Work done for an open
system. Let us consider a gas flowing
through a duct from section A1A2 to section B1B2. If is imagine that the flow
of the gas takes place due to piston formed by the different layer of the fluid.
Before section A1A2 is 'p' then the work done on the section of the fluid
at A1A2 will be, Work done = Force X
Displacement = F X L= ( pressure X Area ) X length W= (p X A)
X L Where, A= cross section area of duct L= Distant between two layer A1 and B2
Thus, W= P x volume P= const. The above equation will appear as an energy
term for all the flow system. The pressure is given by the height and the
volume is given by the length of diagram. Any condition and state of gas is
represented by particular point in the diagram this point is thus known
as the state point of the gas The P-V diagram is also known as indicator
diagram. Process: - when a
system undergoes a change from one condition to another condition. (One state
point to another state point) It is then said to have complete a process. Note:
- without addition of mass there is change of volume is called expansion

Cycle When a system after undergoing a no. Of process is
able to retain its original condition (original pressure volume and temperature),
the system is than said to have completed a cycle.Of a cycle is not completed, then continuous work will not
be obtained? The order in which the different operation should take place for
completing a cycle is an follow Heat added, Work done (expansion)
output, Heat rejection, Compression Ideal cycle :- It is the cycle in
which the expansion and compression process will take place adiabatically and
reversible ( Isentropic process ) When a system undergoes a process in such a
manner that it is able to retain its original condition by following the same
path in the reverse direction then the proces is said to be reversible process.
On the other hand if the abatement is unable to retain its original condition
then process is than said to be irreversible Also if the system is able
to retain its original condition along a different path the process is still
irreversible The difference between reversible and irreversible process ( ideal
and actual conditions ) is without friction and with friction .

Thermal equilibrium when there is no heat transfer between two bodies then
they are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other. Under ideal
condition the temperature of two bodies will be the same when they are in
thermal equilibrium with one another. Zeroth law when two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a
third body then first two bodies will also be thermal equilibrium with one
another. Quasi-static process ( it
is only theoretical ) When a system undergoes a process in such a
manner that the final condition is nearest to the original or thermal
equilibrium condition , the process is then known as quasi static
process. A quasi-static process is the same as different calculus in math. A
quasi-static process is used under condition. When any quantity will remain
constant but it's keeps on changing

A quasi-static process can be
used for reversible process only. (It cannot be used for irreversible
process) Work done for closed system ( by using quasi-static process) Let us consider a
closed system undergoing change from state point 1 to 2. In such a manner
that process and volume changes from p1V1 to P2V2, a b shown in Figure is
a quasi-static process. The change in pressure for the quasi-static
process is negligible. If they assumed constant pressure for quasi - static
process is p and change in volume is dv then Work done for this quasi-static
process is given by, TYPES of
process Constant volume process( isd Horicon or isometric ),
Constant volume process ( Isobaric process), Constant temperature process (
isothermal process or hyperbolic process - valid for gases only) The adiabatic process no heat transfer Polytrophic
process ( P, V and T is changes and heat transfer not =0 ) Important question
Determine the Work done for a different process undergone by a closed system or
non flow system . Undergoing change as shown in the above diagram. Solution

C. V process When , v = constant then dv =0 Pdu =Pxo
= p x 0 = 0 note :- remaining notes i will completed in few days. The
DOF of cam and follower is always 1 For any followers DOF is the
number of inputs required to get constrained output in any chain . Spring
as a link:- A link of flexible length.

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